Reforms of national innovation policies in Europe
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Reforms of national innovation policies in Europe

Many European countries have introduced important reforms in their innovation policies since the year 2000. Countries with traditionally “mission-oriented” policies have introduced many new “diffusion-oriented” instruments, and vice-versa. Are we witnessing a trend towards convergence of innovation policies, and ultimately of innovation systems? The answer is very simple, and yet quite complex. Simply put the … Continue reading

The Effect of Innovation Programs. Measuring What?
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The Effect of Innovation Programs. Measuring What?

Innovation policy programs and instruments are very ambitious. Measuring their effects must focus broadly and not narrowly on their added value. Many countries have developed ambitious public policies, programs and instruments that promote innovation in the economy, and the solution of complex societal problems. The logic behind this is the expectation that public programs can … Continue reading